The Most Mysterious Anomalies of Mars


Since Ancient Man began tracking the unique red world across the night sky, we have always known there is something special about Mars. Although it is much smaller than Earth, Mars is the most Earth-like planet in our solar system with its many similar geological features, including polar ice caps and what appear to be ancient (but now dry) river beds. But is there life on Mars? Despite the controversy surrounding Mars meteorites that some scientists think contain fossils of ancient Martian bacteria-like life forms, there is no conclusive evidence that life currently or ever existed on Mars.

That, however, does not rule out the possibility that there was once life on Mars. Although there is no conclusive evidence, there are some tantalizing photos sent back from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) and other probes that might raise some eyebrows.

This picture taken by the Mars rover shows two relatively thin objects that cast a definite shadow on the ground, making them look like they are suspended or floating.

The object on the left has been called “the spoon” because of the spoon-like shape on the end, and the other has been dubbed “the hoverboard” for its slight resemblance to the hoverboard featured in the Back to the Future films.

NASA of course has dismissed the objects in the image as nothing more than pareidolia—a trick of light and shadow. The agency says it is just a “weird rock”—a ventifact—a rock shaped over time by wind. Weird, indeed.

Although it is unlikely that the objects are a spoon and hoverboard, they may warrant a closer look. But NASA is decidedly un-curious about suchanomalies.


Evidence of living vegetation on Mars?. NASA

This photo, taken by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) look quite like aerial photos of an Earth desert dotted with shrub growth. But these sand dunes are in the southern hemisphere of Mars. A Hungarian research team, which has been analyzing the photos (and other photos of the same area over time), has concluded that the black dots are indeed living organisms.

 Mars Trees and Shrubs


Evidence for vegetative life on Mars?. NASA

“Each spring,” writes David Leonard in an article for, “[the Hungarians] report, ‘gray fuzzy spots’ appear in the bottom of the ice cover. By the middle of the first half of spring, these spots become darker, are bounded, and grow in size. By early summer defrosting, the naked dark soil of the dune is visible, and surrounded by a lighter ring. Year after year, the dark dune spots ‘renew’ on the same place with almost the same configuration, or ‘constellation’ of patches. This repeat action, the team asserts, strengthens their suggestion of fixed, biological causes of spot formation.”

The Hungarian scientists conclude that this strongly suggests the life cycle of some kind of plant life.

NASA and its associated research teams don’t agree with this conclusion. Their theory is that the dark spots are “the result of springtime defrosting process on Mars, not signs of biology.” A somewhat less dismissive opinion from Bruce Jakosky, a Mars researcher at the University of Colorado in Boulder, states that the conclusion for Martian biology is “premature… when other, simpler processes have not been ruled out.”


Banyan trees?. NASA

Another controversial photo, shown here, reveals much larger forms that look like spreading trees as seen from above. No less a personage than respected author Arthur C. Clarke opined that they resemble Earth’s Banyan trees. He too noted that these forms appear to change with the seasons, growing with the warmth and increased sunlight of Mars’s spring season, just as vegetation would. But NASA has likewise explained these shapes as some kind of freezing/defrosting phenomenon or a part of the “bizarre geology” of Mars.

Both theories are just that, however – theories. NASA doesn’t know any better than the Hungarians what these changing forms on the Martian surface really are. The only way to find out for certain is to direct one of our upcoming Martian rovers to the area and photograph them. It seems it would certainly be worth the effort to find out conclusively.

And while they’re at it, perhaps they could send another probe to examine some perplexing Martian features that look as though they were built by intelligent creatures. See those on the following pages.


What are these glassy-looking forms?. NASA

One of the most fascinating images, pictured at right, shows a ribbed tube or tunnel-like structure. Partially covered by the surface terrain, the structure looks as through it has been unearthed (unmarsed?) by some geologic process. The structure resembles the so-called “glass worms” discovered in other photos, although this one lacks the “transparent” or “translucent” quality of the worms.

The official NASA stance on these structures is that they are quite natural and are, in fact, “dune trains” – rows of sand dunes. The article “Is This an Artificial Construct on Mars” compares this photo with another photo of actual Martian dune trains. They don’t look anything alike. While the photo of “actual” dunes indeed look like sand dunes, this enigmatic structure does not.


What is the purpose of these tubes?. NASA

These are, without a doubt, the most fascinating objects yet photographed on the surface of Mars. They look like long translucent tubes supported by rows of bright arches. “A lot of people have seen these strange structures and have tried to speculate as to what they might be,” says Jeffrey McCann at The Research Abyss. “Some would say these are huge water ducts funneling water from one area to another, others are firm in thinking that these are some sort of natural geological anomaly only occurring on Mars.”

McCann and Joseph P. Skipper, both researchers into Martian anomalies, call this image “the real smoking gun as to life on Mars.” The image was discovered in June, 2000 among the many images posted at Malin Space Science Systems, which has tens of thousands of Mars pictures available for online viewing and examination.

“These structures are actually in excellent condition,” says Skipper in an article titled Dissecting The Mars ‘Tubes’ Anomaly, “where other antiquity anomalies on Mars are heavily eroded, allowing endless debate as to what they truly are, natural or constructs. Note their general uniformity and the uniform spacing of the bands or ridges. Note how one structure here clearly attaches to another and note the shiny round terminating end at the junction point clearly defining it as a constructed hard object as opposed to a natural geological formation of some kind. Note how at least one or more bands/ridges span around both structures tying them together at the junction point clearly demonstrating construction technique. Note the apparent translucent composition of these structures and how entirely alien they clearly are to the geology and topography they are embedded in. There can be no question that these are constructs of some kind. But, made by what or who and for what purpose?”

At Richard Hoagland’s Enterprise Mission, Sir Arthur C. Clarke (author of 2001: A Space Odyssey) is quoted as remarking about the tubes: “I’m still waiting for an explanation of that extraordinary glass worm on… [Mars]… How big is it? It’s one of the most incredible images that’s ever come from space and there have been no [official] comments on it whatsoever!”


A port for what?. NASA

This photo depicts the so-called “port,” which has been examined in some detail at Mars Unearthed (no longer online).

This highly geometric structure, appearing on a Martian cliffside, looks like an artificially constructed two-story building of some unknown purpose. In the opinion of the article, “the first floor walls of [the port] are facing camera and in shadow. The second floor is a well-defined square and is turned at a precise 45-degree angle to the first floor. Centered in the midst of the roof of that squared second floor is an abrupt, sharp circle… a ‘landing pad’ as for helicopters atop tall buildings and on decks of ships.”

Near this structure, the article continues, is a large, open, U-shaped culvert or conduit out of which is flowing a great deal of liquid.

Mars Tower


Mars Tower. NASA

“The Tower” seems to show a tall tower or stack with a white tip casting a long shadow. If it is indeed a tower of some kind, it stands at an incredible 6.3 kilometers high – 12 times taller than the largest skyscraper on Earth.

Could these “structures” be optical illusions of natural geological formations? Of course. But to dismiss them outright as not possibly being artificial in origin is just as unscientific as declaring that they absolutely are created by intelligent beings. The suggestion that they are artificial is such a large claim, however, that these images should be examined carefully and with skepticism – but with an open mind. These images of seemingly artificial structures could dissolve into natural formations with more detailed, higher resolution photographs – just as, by most examinations, the so-called “Face on Mars” has resolved into a large mesa.


Where did these boulders come from?. NASA

On February 14, 2001, an international group of nine 10- 15-year-old boys and girls were invited by NASA to direct the camera aboard the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS). When these kids took the controls of the camera, they picked up an image of an anomaly that has scientists puzzled. This picture shows a scattering of large, dark boulders in the middle of a relatively flat, light-colored plain. The puzzle is: Where did they come from? There are no mountains or large hills that the boulders could have broken off from. And their color is in sharp contrast to anything in the surrounding area.

“It’s puzzling,” said Michael Carr of the US Geological Survey. “I looked at a few pictures around [the area] and couldn’t find anything to explain it. Very puzzling! These are huge boulders. There are no indications of any outcrops that could shed such boulders.”

How huge are they? It is estimated that they are between 50 and 80 feet in diameter. Those are big rocks! “Wow! These have me totally stumped,” commented Ron Greeley of Arizona State University. “Not only is the dark color of the boulders a surprise, but they appear totally out of context in the surrounding terrain. There is nothing in the rest of the image to suggest a source for such large boulders, nor their arrangement on the surface.”

One proposed theory is that the boulders are the remains of a meteor that shattered on impact. Yet there is no impact crater; the meteor would have had to have been moving quite slowly to make no crater and keep its fragments in such a close grouping. The meteor theory is highly unlikely. Planetary scientists have yet to come up with a plausible, satisfactory explanation for the boulders.


Giza and Martian Pyramids. NASA

The Cydonia region of Mars seems to be chock full of weird anomalous structures. Southwest of the infamous “face” is a group of features that have been called “pyramids” (above right). With their relatively smooth, triangular sides, they bear a striking resemblance from the air to the pyramids at Giza, Egypt (above left).

One of the most closely studied is the so-called D&M pyramid. According to researcher Mark Carlotto, “the three illuminated faces of the D&M appear to be relatively flat with well defined edges in between. Buttress like structures at the base of several edges are also evident. In the MGS image the edge between the northeast and northwest faces resembles a spine running from the apex of the D&M down to the ground. At the base of the spine lies a circular depression, possibly an opening. A dark feature seems to emanate northward from this depression or opening, which then leads into a sinuous channel off to the right.”

Carlotto also has examined “the City Pyramid,” a five-sided structure whose spines “resemble the five pointed Egyptian symbol for a star.” In the most high-resolution photos of these structures taken by MGS, the pyramids look somewhat less pyramid-like, but their geometric shapes are still full of intrigue.


Artificial structure or natural formation?. NASA

The curious formation seen here has been dubbed the Star City. It’s a complex structure that some researchers say shows walls of artificial construction.

The structure is located on the Syrtis Major Planum area and is part of a large area of strange patterns, geometric objects and other curiosities that look for all the world like tubes and tunnels.

According to Star City, the structures most likely have a natural origin: “Large domes and tubes, volcanic in origin, cover the landscape, and several of the domes have partially collapsed, creating interesting structures. In many cases the uncollapsed parts are probably partially hollow and may provide a shelter from the extreme Martian environment.”

Indeed, just because a feature looks artificial doesn’t mean that it is. We are only beginning to understand Mars’ climate, geology and processes. It is still hotly debated whether or not Mars ever had flowing water – and perhaps still does. Yet there are some features of this strange planet that are truly mystifying.


Does this photo show freestanding or flowing water on Mars?. NASA

Scientists say it is highly unlikely that there is any freestanding or flowing water on Mars, and almost certainly no life. So we’d like to get a good explanation for this photo taken by the Mars Express orbiter. In stark contrast to the surrounding familiar rust-red rock of the planet is this ribbon of blue-green “something” in a canyon. If we were to see such a feature in an aerial photo of the Earth, we would quickly assume that it is a body of water.

A number of questions arise: Are the colors accurate? The U.S. orbiters have not shown such colors in any of their photos. If the colors are accurate, what accounts for them? Lifeless mineral deposits? Or do they reveal the existence of water… or, more remarkably, a kind of Martian blue-green algae or lichen?


Weird crater or domed structure?. NASA

Here is one of the most peculiar craters on Mars. Taken by the Mars Global Surveyor, the photo clearly shows an ordinary-looking crater with something extraordinary-looking inside it. Off-center is a dome-like structure, nearly perfectly spherical, that appears to have a golf ball-like texture… or that of a Buckminster Fuller geodesic construction.

More intriguing, this dome stands very near what looks like a system of tunnels or conduits that run above and below the Martian surface. Small tunnels seem to connect to large tunnels, like some kind of enormous drainage system. (There is a similar crater and dome in this photo.)

Monolith on Mars


Who erected this monolith?. NASA

This photo of a mysterious object on the surface of Mars was snapped by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter from 165 miles up. It appears to show a free-standing geometric block of undetermined height. It immediately brings to mind, of course, the alien-created monolith from the film 2001: A Space Odyssey. But is this object artificial?

A scientist from the University of Arizona is quoted as saying, “In reality it’s more likely that this boulder has been created by breaking away from the bedrock to create a rectangular-shaped feature.” If so, where is the bedrock from which it has been broken? Where is the stone that fractured off to create this shape? The object seems to be standing quite on its own on a plain of soil. We cannot say it is an artificial creation, of course, but we can add it to the growing list of peculiar Martian anomalies. .

The "monolith" on Phobos


The “monolith” on Phobos. NASA

“We should go boldly where man has not gone before – fly by the comets, visit asteroids, visit the moon of Mars. There’s a monolith there. A very unusual structure on this little potato shaped object that goes around Mars once in seven hours. When people find out about that, they’re going to say ‘Who put that there?’ Well, the universe put it there. If you choose, God put it there.”

Those are the words of Buzz Aldrin, the second man to walk on the Moon, during a program commemorating the 40th anniversary of the first Moon landing. And this is the monolith he’s talking about. The explanatory call-outs on the photo above were made by Efrain Palermo in his analysis of the object.

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