Astronomers Say Advanced Alien Civilizations Have Existed

Uncategorized
Share

269346main_ngc3256_hst_big_full-676x450
Astronomers Adam Frank and Woodruff Sullivan, at the University of Rochester and the University of Washington respectively, published a paper in the May issue of the journal Astrobiology exploring what they call the “cosmic archaeological question”: “How often in the history of the Universe has evolution ever led to a technological species, whether short- or long-lived?”

theepochtimes.com reports:

Frank summed up their conclusion in an op-ed for the New York Times, published June 10: “While we do not know if any advanced extraterrestrial civilizations currently exist in our galaxy, we now have enough information to conclude that they almost certainly existed at some point in cosmic history.”

We now have enough information to conclude that they almost certainly existed at some point in cosmic history. — Adam Frank, astronomer, University of Rochester The astronomers came to this conclusion by reworking the famous Drake equation from a different perspective, also adding up-to-date information. The equation was originally formulated by astronomer Frank Drake in 1961 to calculate the odds of contact with alien life.

Drake studied radio astronomy at Harvard and held various posts in the field, including at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. He included in his equation various factors, such as the rate of formation of stars suitable for the development of intelligent life and the number of planets in each solar system with an environment suitable for life (See the image below if you want to see Drake’s entire equation).

Drake-equation-2 Improvements in astronomical observation technology have greatly boosted our knowledge of exoplanets. In April, the Kepler spacecraft team announced the discovery 1,284 planets outside our solar system. Frank wrote in his op-ed: “Three of the seven terms in Drake’s equation are now known. We know the number of stars born each year. We know that the percentage of stars hosting planets is about 100. And we also know that about 20 to 25 percent of those planets are in the right place for life to form. This puts us in a position, for the first time, to say something definitive about extraterrestrial civilizations.”

By looking at the probability of an alien civilization having ever existed, instead of currently existing, Frank and Sullivan also bypassed the time-constraints built into Drake’s factors.

“This left us with only three unknown factors, which we combined into one ‘biotechnical’ probability: the likelihood of the creation of life, intelligent life, and technological capacity,” Frank wrote. He concluded: “The odds that we are not the first technological civilization are actually high. Specifically, unless the probability for evolving a civilization on a habitable-zone planet is less than one in 10 billion trillion, then we are not the first.”

In 2013, mathematicians at the University of Edinburgh made a similar statement about the probability of alien cultures having sent probes to Earth. In the abstract of their study, published in the International Journal of Astrobiology, they wrote: “We conclude that a fleet of self-replicating probes can indeed explore the Galaxy in a sufficiently short time to warrant the existence of the Fermi Paradox.”

Read more here: http://www.theepochtimes.com/n3/2089389-astronomers-say-advanced-alien-civilizations-have-existed/


Uncategorized
Mysterious Megaliths Of Russia May Offer Evidence Of An Ancient Advanced Lost Civilization
Share

Some of these massive stone blocks can be natural formations, but there are also other huge structures that seem a bit too artificial to be considered a work of Mother Nature. Related PostsThis Is the Largest Stone Block Ever Carved By Human HandsWhen They Brought These Wolves Into The Park, …

Uncategorized
Declassified Files Reveal UK Feared Soviets, Chinese Would Acquire UFO Tech
Share

Once-classified documents being called “Britain’s X-Files” have revealed that the British Ministry of Defense spent half a century hunting UFOs, driven in some part out of concern that the Soviet Union or China had already gotten their hands on alien technology. Related PostsMinistry of Defence, Britain: MoD Discovers 18 New …

Uncategorized
Europe on suicide-Watch: Salafist Scare in Sweden as Report Points to Avalanche Growth of Radical Islam
Share

The number of Islamist extremists in Sweden has risen tenfold, the Swedish Defense College wrote in a new report on the Islamist threat commissioned by the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency (MSB). The report was called “one of a kind” as it mapped out the jihadist environment in Sweden and its …